Java Concurrency Errors

Java is a popular programming language that supports concurrent programming through the use of threads. While multithreading can improve application performance, it can also lead to concurrency errors if not implemented correctly. In this blog post, we will discuss some of the most common concurrency errors that can occur in Java applications and share some techniques for avoiding these errors.

  1. Race Conditions

A race condition occurs when two or more threads access shared resources in an unpredictable order, which can lead to incorrect results or program crashes. For example, imagine two threads incrementing a shared counter variable simultaneously. Depending on the order in which the threads execute, the final value of the counter may not be what was expected.

To avoid race conditions, Java provides synchronized methods and blocks, which ensure that only one thread can access a shared resource at a time. By synchronizing access to shared resources, you can prevent race conditions and ensure that the results of concurrent operations are predictable.

  1. Deadlocks

A deadlock occurs when two or more threads are blocked and waiting for resources that are held by other threads, resulting in a situation where all threads are unable to proceed. For example, imagine two threads each holding a lock on a resource that the other thread needs. Both threads are waiting for the other to release the lock, resulting in a deadlock.

To avoid deadlocks, Java provides the concept of locks and the ability to use the synchronized keyword to acquire and release locks. To prevent deadlocks, you should always acquire locks in a consistent order and avoid holding locks for extended periods of time.

  1. Thread Starvation

Thread starvation occurs when a thread is unable to obtain the resources it needs to execute, such as CPU time or memory. This can happen when a thread is blocked waiting for a lock that is held by another thread or when a low-priority thread is constantly preempted by higher-priority threads.

To avoid thread starvation, you should use thread priorities appropriately and ensure that threads are given fair access to shared resources. Additionally, you should avoid creating too many threads, as this can lead to resource exhaustion and degrade overall application performance.

  1. Visibility Problems

Visibility problems occur when one thread makes changes to a shared resource, but those changes are not immediately visible to other threads. For example, imagine one thread modifying a shared variable while another thread reads the same variable. Depending on the order in which the threads execute, the second thread may not see the updated value.

To avoid visibility problems, you can use the volatile keyword to ensure that changes to a shared variable are immediately visible to all threads. Additionally, you can use synchronized blocks or methods to ensure that changes to shared resources are visible to all threads.


Java concurrency errors can be challenging to debug and resolve, but by following best practices and using the appropriate tools and techniques, you can avoid many of the common pitfalls. Remember to always synchronize access to shared resources, use thread priorities appropriately, avoid creating too many threads, and ensure that changes to shared resources are immediately visible to all threads. By doing so, you can create robust and high-performance Java applications that are free of concurrency errors.

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